Car Forums Philippines - AutoIndustriya.com

In General => Modified Cars => Topic started by: sonic1 on January 21, 2004, 02:31:56 AM

Title: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on January 21, 2004, 02:31:56 AM
hey guys... i know there a lot of technical terms that we use here... but for the sake of those who visits this forums and the new ones (like me)... would you be kind enough to put those terms n explain it briefly...

i'm sure a lot of newbies n those who'd like to understand this terms would really appreciate as much as benefit from it!!! thanks!!!

::) ::) ::) ::) ::) ::) 8) 8) 8) 8) 8)
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: R-A-Y on January 21, 2004, 08:44:51 AM
Sounds like a good idea :D

I'll make this sticky for easy reference :)
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: lantraluvr on January 22, 2004, 10:32:09 PM
Can I add some?

PS - pferde starke (sp)
HP - horse power
1 PS = 0.9.... HP
These figures are used for rating the power of the car...

FF - front engine, front wheel drive
FR - front engine, rear wheel drive
MR - mid-engined, rear wheel drive
RR - rear engine, rear wheel drive
4WD - four wheel drive

turbocharger - air pump driven by exhaust to increase intake of air to the engine

supercharger - air pump driven by the engine via belt to increase the intake of air to the engine
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: GRaMLyTZ on January 23, 2004, 08:42:22 AM

  These may not be technical terms in specific but terms affiliated in the automotive wolrd . These are I can think for the moment . :)

 AWD - All WHeel Drive
 CAI   - Cold Air Intake
 JDM - Japanese DOmestic Market
 USDM - US Domestic Market
 1320 feet - 1/4 mile or the quartermile
 
 
 
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Eikichi Onizuka on January 24, 2004, 12:41:42 PM
Christmas tree= when you watch a legal event ito yung parang stoplight na nasa gitna ng 2 racer

ram air= ito yung nakakabit sa right headlights ng mga civic and left headlights naman para sa mga corolla its main function is to vacuum more air from the outside going inside.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Lncr_turbo on January 25, 2004, 10:50:31 PM
awd means a full time four wheel drive
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: M.com on January 27, 2004, 07:50:30 AM

N.A. - Naturally Aspirated or Normally Aspirated. Meaning the engine alone is responsible for ingesting air, no aid from external active devices like turbo or supercharger.

All Motor - Same as N.A. (New School terminology)
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Arnold on January 27, 2004, 12:21:12 PM
Boost = Turbo
Blower= Supercharger
Juice= Nitrous oxide
SOHC= Single OverHead Cams
DOHC=Double OverHead Cams

More HP to all of U. 8) 8) 8) 8)
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: johnqpublic318 on January 27, 2004, 03:12:18 PM
Quote from: Yoyo on January 27, 2004, 12:21:12 PM
Boost = Turbo
More HP to all of U. 8) 8) 8) 8)

How can "boost = turbo" when boost can be had also with a supercharger.  Boost is a measurement of pressure provided by forced induction and doesn't just mean "turbo".
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: GRaMLyTZ on January 27, 2004, 04:28:08 PM

 I agree , both superchargers and turbochargers utilizes boost . Maybe a street word for turbo also is SNAIL more appropriate o di na ito considered technical term ?? :)
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: fatbastard on February 02, 2004, 11:28:16 AM
FI= forced induction
WOT= wide open throttle
AFC= air flow converter
AIC= additional injector controller
LSD= limited slip differential; lysergic acid
ITC= ignition timing controller
torque= HP*RPM/5252
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Raymond on February 02, 2004, 01:29:35 PM
Quote from: fatbastard on February 02, 2004, 11:28:16 AM
FI= forced induction
WOT= wide open throttle
AFC= air flow converter
AIC= additional injector controller
LSD= limited slip differential; lysergic acid
ITC= ignition timing controller
torque= HP*RPM/5252

What unit of torque will this formula yield Atty? :)
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: fatbastard on February 02, 2004, 11:38:31 PM
Quote from: rAImond on February 02, 2004, 01:29:35 PM
Quote from: fatbastard on February 02, 2004, 11:28:16 AM
FI= forced induction
WOT= wide open throttle
AFC= air flow converter
AIC= additional injector controller
LSD= limited slip differential; lysergic acid
ITC= ignition timing controller
torque= HP*RPM/5252

What unit of torque will this formula yield Atty? :)

...depends on which unit you will be using for the HP! ;)

i think KG-m yields kW, while lb-ft yields HP. CMIIW...
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: per on February 05, 2004, 09:58:02 AM
RPM= Revolutions Per Minuite :)
KPH= Kilometers Per Hour :)
LHD= Left Hand Dive :)
RHD=Right Hand Drive :)
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: anton000 on February 09, 2004, 01:20:15 AM
VTEC - Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control
MIVEC - Mitsubishi Innovative Valve timing Electronic Control system
VVTi - Variable Valve Timing with intelligence
EGR Valve - Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve
EFI - Electronic Fuel Injection
BOV - Blow-off Valve
EGT - Exhaust Gas Temperature
AFR - Air Fuel Ratio
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: oh_arnold on February 11, 2004, 11:48:03 PM
Quote from: anton000 on February 09, 2004, 01:20:15 AM
VTEC - Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control
VVTi - Variable Valve Timing with intelligence
i-VTEC - honda added the i, as in the "intelligence" in toyota's    VVT-i. that means i-VTEC now also has continuously variable intake valve timing.
VVTL-i - toyota added an L to VVT-i, as in "lift" variation like VTEC, on both intake and exhaust valves.

i-VTEC is already available in the philippine market inside the accords, crvs and some civics. the VVTL-i is not.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Cyclone_CB2A on February 18, 2004, 08:14:18 PM
How about engine codes for all of the cars that you may possibly know of?
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: fatbastard on February 18, 2004, 10:56:11 PM
MITSU:
4G13= 1300cc S/DOHC carb/EFI
4G15= 1500cc S/DOHC carb/EFI
4G18= 1600cc SOHC
4G32= 1600cc SOHC
4G33= 1800cc SOHC
4G37= 1400cc SOHC
4G61= 1600cc DOHC, NA/FI
4G63= 2000cc S/DOHC, NA/FI
4G64= 2400cc SOHC, available in MIVEC
4G67= 1800cc DOHC
4G91= 1500cc DOHC
4G92= 1600cc S/DOHC, available in MIVEC, MIVEC-MD
4G93= 1800cc S/DOHC, NA/FI
4G94= 2000cc SOHC
6A10= 1600cc V6, DOHC
6A12= 2000cc V6, DOHC NA/FI twin turbo, MIVEC
6A13= 2500cc V6, SOHC NA/FI twin turbo
6G72= 3000cc V6, DOHC NA/FI twin turbo

;)
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: H8t_SiR on February 19, 2004, 11:58:31 AM
Toyota:

T= turbocharge
Z= supercharge
G= twincam
F= economical
E= injected
C= carburated
I= single point injected
R= air injection
S= swirl intake ports,direct injection & swirl pot pistons
U = emission package (Japan)
C = emission package (California)

la na ko maisip na iba.... i think eto lang yung mga nagagamit d2 sa pinas
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 24, 2004, 10:32:06 PM
for Hondas:

EF,EG,EK,ES,EP refers to the chassis codes of each generations of civics..

EF-1988-92
EG-93-95
EK-96-2000
ES-present Civic Sedan
EP- new hatch backs ex. EP3-Civic type-r Hatch





above correction
EF 88-91
EG 92-95

INTEGRAS
DA 89-92(?) LS D16A DOHC non vtec GSR B16A1 DOHC VTEC
DB 94-97 B18B1 LS DOHCnon vtec B18C1 GSR DOHC VTEC
DB7 94-97 4door
DC 98-01 (DC2 type R)
DC5 present K20A

CTR civic type R B16B EK4 96-98 EK9 99-00
ITR DC2 integra type R B18C5

Honda S2000 F20C
NSX C32
Accord F22,H22 (V6?)
Prelude H22



8) 8) 8) ;D ;D ;D
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 24, 2004, 10:53:00 PM
A
A-pillar
the roof support on either side of A car's windshield.

Active Suspension
An extremely sophisticated, computer controlled suspension system that uses powered actuators instead of conventional springs and shock absorbers. The actuators position a car's wheels in the best possible manner to deal with road disturbances and handling loads.

Aerodynamic drag
The drag produced by a moving object as it displaces the air in its path. Aerodynamic drag is a force usually measured in pounds; it increases in proportion to the object's frontal area, its drag coefficient, and the square of its speed.

Air Dam
A front spoiler mounted beneath the bumper and shaped to reduce the airflow under the car. Air dams can increase the airflow to radiators, reduce aerodynamic drag, and/or reduce lift.

Anti-Dive
A tuned-in front suspension characteristic that converts braking-induced forces in the suspension links into a vertical force that tends to lift the body, thereby reducing dive under braking.

Anti-Lock-Braking System
A braking system that senses when any of the wheels have locked up, or are about to, and automatically reduces the braking forces to keep the wheels rolling. Commonly called ABS, such a system can control all four wheels or only two.

Anti-Roll Bar
A suspension element (used at the front, the rear, or both ends of a car) that reduces body roll by resisting any unequal vertical motion between the pair of wheels to which it is connected. An anti-roll bar does not affect suspension stiffness when both wheels are deflected equally in the same direction. Often incorrectly called a sway bar.

Anti-Squat
Similar to anti-dive, this suspension characteristic uses acceleration-induced forces in the rear suspension to reduce squat.

Apex
The point(s) or region on the line through a corner that touches the corner's inner radius.

Aspect Ratio
Generally the ratio between two dimensions of an object. In tire terminology it applies to the unloaded sidewall height of the tire divided by its overall width. A lower aspect ratio implies a shorter, wider tire. When used to describe a wing it is the span of the airfoil (the long dimension perpendicular to the airflow) divided by its chord (the dimension parallel to the airflow).

Axle Tramp
A form of wheel hop that occurs on cars with live axles, caused by the axle repeatedly rotating slightly with the wheels and then springing back.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 24, 2004, 10:57:56 PM
B

B-pillar
The roof support between a car's front door window and rear side window, if there is one.

balance shalt
A shaft designed so that, as it rotates, it vibrates in a way that reduces or cancels some of the vibration produced by an engine. Not essential to an engine's operation, balance shafts are nonetheless becoming increasingly common as a means of engine refinement. Balance-shafted four-cylinder engines use two shafts turning in opposite directions on either side of the engine's crankshaft. A single balance shaft is used when fitted to three-cylinder and V-6 engines.

ball joint
A flexible joint consisting of a ball in a socket, used primarily in front suspensions because it can accommodate a wide range of angular motion.

Beam Axle
A rigid axle supporting the non-driven wheels. Also called a dead axle.

Beltline
The line running around a car's body formed by the bottom edges of its glass panels

Bevel Gears
A gearset employing gears shaped like slices of a cone, which allows the axes of the gears to be nonparallel. Bevel gears are used to transmit motion through an angle.

Boost Pressure
The increase above atmospheric pressure produced inside the intake manifold by any supercharger. It is commonly measured in psi, inches of mercury, or bar.

Brake Bias
The front/rear distribution of a car's braking power. For the shortest stopping distance, brake bias should match the car's traction at each end during hard braking brake modulation: the process of varying pedal pressure to hold a car's brakes on the verge of lockup. Ideally, the brakes will unlock with only a slight reduction in the pressure needed to lock them. Typically, however, a considerable pressure reduction is required.

Brake Torquing
A procedure generally used in performance tests to improve the off-the-line acceleration of a car equipped with an automatic transmission. It is executed by firmly depressing the brake with the left foot, applying the throttle with the car in gear to increase engine rpm, then releasing the brakes. Brake torquing is particularly effective with turbo charged cars because it helps overcome turbo lag.

Breathing (engine)
A term used to describe an engine's ability to fill its cylinders with air-fuel mixture and then discharge the burnt exhaust gases. In general, the more air-fuel mixture an engine burns the more power it produces.

Bushing
A simple suspension bearing that accommodates limited rotary motion, typically made of two coaxial steel tubes bonded to a sleeve of rubber between them. The compliance of the bushing in different directions has a great effect on ride harshness and handling.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 24, 2004, 11:25:40 PM
C

C-pillar
The roof support between a car's rearmost side window and its rear window. On a vehicle with four side pillars, the rearmost roof support may be called a D-pillar.

Cam Profile
The shape of each lobe on a camshaft. The profile determines the amount, or ""duration,"" of time the valve is open; it also largely determines the valve's maximum opening, or ""lift."" camber: the angle between the plane of a wheel's circumference and a vertical line, measured in degrees and minutes. The tops of a car's wheels tilt inward when the camber is negative, outward when it is positive.

Camshaft
A shaft fitted with several cams, whose lobes push on valve lifters to convert rotary motion into linear motion. The opening and closing of the valves in all piston engines is regulated by one or more camshafts.

Carbon Fiber
Thread-like strands of pure carbon that are extremely strong in tension (that is, when pulled) and are reasonably flexible. Carbon fiber can be bound in a matrix of plastic resin by heat, vacuum, or pressure to form a composite that is strong, light: and very expensive.

Caster
The angle between a vertical line and the car's steering axis when viewed from the side, measured in degrees and minutes.

Catalytic Converter
Often simply called a "catalyst": a stainless-steel canister fitted to a car's exhaust system that contains a thin layer of catalytic material spread over a large area of inert supports. The material used is some combination of platinum, rhodium, and palladium; it induces chemical reactions that convert an engine's exhaust emissions into less harmful products. So-called three-way catalysts are particularly efficient; their operation, however, demands very precise combustion control, which can be produced only by a feedback fuel-air-ratio control system.

Center Differential
A differential used in four-wheel-drive systems to distribute power to the front and rear differentials.

Chassis
A general term that refers to all of the mechanical parts of a car attached to a structural frame. In cars with unitized construction, the chassis comprises everything but the body of the car.

Coil spring
A bar of resilient metal wound into a spiral that may be compressed or extended without permanent deformation. Coil springs have many automotive applications but are particularly important as suspension springs.

combustion chamber
The space within the cylinder when the piston is at the top of its travel. It is formed by the top of the piston and a cavity in the cylinder head. Since most of the air-fuel mixture's combustion takes place in this space, its design and shape can greatly affect the power, fuel efficiency, and emissions of the engine.

compliance
A slight resiliency, or "give," designed into suspension bushings to help absorb bumps. Good compliance allows the wheels to move rearward a bit as they hit bumps but doesn't allow them to move laterally during cornering.

composite
Any material that consists of two or more components, typically one or more of high strength and one an adhesive binder. The most common composite is fiberglass, which consists of thin glass fibers bonded together in a plastic matrix. The structural properties of composites can be altered by controlling the orientation and configuration of the high-strength components.

compression ratio
The ratio between the combined volume of a cylinder and a combustion chamber when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, and the volume when the piston is at the top of its stroke. The higher the compression ratio, the more mechanical energy an engine can squeeze from its air-fuel mixture. Higher compression ratios, however, also make detonation more likely.

connecting rod
The metal rod that connects a piston to a throw on a crankshaft.

constant-velocity joint
A particular kind of universal joint designed so that there is no cyclic fluctuation between the speeds of its input and output shafts.

control arm
A suspension element that has one joint at one end and two joints at the other end, typically the chassis side. Also known as a wishbone or an A-arm.

cornering limit
The maximum speed at which a car can negotiate a given curve.

coupe
A closed car with two side doors and less than 33 cubic feet of rear interior volume, according to measurements based on SAE standard J1100. A two-door car is therefore not necessarily a coupe.

crankshaft
A shaft with one or more cranks, or "throws," that are coupled by connecting rods to the engine's pistons. Together, the crankshaft and the con rods transform the pistons' reciprocating motion into rotary motion.

cylinder
The round, straight-sided cavity in which the pistons move up and down. Typically made of cast iron and formed as a part of the block.

cylinder head
The aluminum or iron casting that houses the combustion chambers, the intake and exhaust ports, and much or all of the valvetrain. The head (or heads, if an engine has more than one bank of cylinders) is always directly above the cylinders.

cylinder liner
The circular housing that the piston moves in when the cylinder is not an integral part of the block. Also known as a "sleeve."
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 24, 2004, 11:27:10 PM
D

DBA
A unit of measure for decibels, the measure of sound intensity or pressure named after Alexander Graham Bell. It is a logarithmic measurement; every 3dB increase represents a doubling of the sound pressure. The ""A"" in dBA indicates that the measurement was taken with an A-weighted scale; sound pressure varies across the audible spectrum, and the A-weighted scale approximates the human ear's sensitivity to various frequencies.

de Dion suspension
A suspension system in which the rear, driven wheels are bolted to a transverse, lightweight, rigid member. Power is delivered to the wheels by universal-jointed half-shafts attached to a body-mounted differential.

dead pedal
A footrest found to the left of the leftmost pedal. It provides a place for the driver to brace his left leg during hard cornering.

detonation
A condition in which, after the spark plug fires, some of the unburned air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber explodes spontaneously, set off only by the heat and pressure of air-fuel mixture that has already been ignited. Detonation, or "knock," greatly increases the mechanical and thermal stresses on the engine.

differential
A special gearbox designed so that the torque fed into it is split and delivered to two outputs that can turn at different speeds. Differentials within axles are designed to split torque evenly; however, when used between the front and rear axles in four-wheel-drive systems (a center differential), they can be designed to apportion torque unevenly.

disc brakes
Properly called caliper disc brakes: a type of brake that consists of a disc that rotates at wheel speed, straddled by a caliper that can squeeze the surfaces of the disc near its periphery. Disc brakes provide a more linear response and operate more efficiently at high temperatures and wet conditions than drum brakes.

dive
The dipping of a car's nose that occurs when the brakes are applied. Dive is caused by a load transfer from the rear to the front suspension; this transfer occurs because the car's center of gravity, through which all inertial forces pass, is higher than its contact patches, the points where the braking forces are exerted on the ground.

DOHC
Double Overhead Camshaft: a DOHC engine has two camshafts in each cylinder head; one camshaft operates the intake valves, the other actuates the exhaust valves.

downforce
A vertical force directed downward, produced by airflow around an object: such as a car body.

drag coefficient
A dimensionless measure of the aerodynamic sleekness of an object. A sleek car has a drag coefficient, or "Cd," of about 0.30; a square, flat plate's is 1.98. Also signified by Cx.

drivability
The general qualitative evaluation of a powertrain's operating qualities, including idle smoothness, cold and hot starting, throttle response, power delivery, and tolerance for altitude changes.

driveline
Everything in the drivetrain, less the engine and the transmission.

driveshaft
The shaft that transmits power from the transmission to the differential.

drivetrain
All of a car's components that create power and transmit it to the wheels; i.e. the engine, the transmission, the differential(s), the hubs, and any interconnecting shafts.

drum brakes
A type of brake that has an iron casting shaped like a shallow drum that rotates with the wheel. Curved brake shoes are forced into contact with the inner periphery of this drum to provide braking.

Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 24, 2004, 11:28:44 PM

E

EGR: exhaust-gas recirculation
A method of reducing NOx (oxides of nitrogen) exhaust emissions by recirculating some of the engine's exhaust gas into the intake manifold. The exhaust gas serves as inert filler that absorbs heat during the combustion process and reduces the peak temperature reached during combustion.

engine-control system
A computerized brain that regulates an engine's operation by monitoring certain engine characteristics (rpm, coolant temperature, intake airflow, etc.) through a network of sensors and then controlling key variables (fuel metering, spark timing, EGR, etc.) according to pre-programmed schedules.

EPA fuel economy
Laboratory fuel-economy tests administered by the Environmental Protection Agency using simulated weight and drag to re-create real driving conditions. The city fuel-economy test, also used to test emissions compliance, is based on a drive through typical Los Angeles urban traffic of about twenty years ago. Of course, such nostalgic conditions are purely nostalgic these days. The highway test uses a higher, steadier speed, averaging 49.4 mph.

Exhaust Manifold
The network of passages that gathers the exhaust gases from the various exhaust ports and routes them toward the catalysts and mufflers of the exhaust system. A manifold with free-flowing passages of a carefully designed configuration, called a ""header,"" can improve breathing.

Exhaust Port
The passageway in the cylinder head leading from the exhaust valves to the exhaust manifold.


F

Feedback Fuel-Air-Ratio Control
A feature of a computer-controlled fuel system. By using a sensor to measure the oxygen content of the engine's exhaust, the system keeps the fuel-air ratio very close to the proportion for chemically perfect combustion. Such tight control of the fuel-air ratio is mandatory for the proper operation of three-way catalysts.

Fiberglass
A composite material that relies on small glass fibers for its strength.

Final-Drive Ratio
The reduction ratio, found in the gearset of a drivetrain, that is furthest removed from the engine. Typically, the differential ratio.

Floorpan
The largest and most important stamped metal part in a car's body. Usually assembled from several smaller stampings, the floorpan forms the floor and fixes the dimensions for most of the car's external and structural panels. It is also the foundation for many of the car's mechanical parts.

Fluid Coupling
Any device that transfers power through a fluid between its inputs and outputs. A fluid coupling basically consists of two fans in a sealed, oil-filled housing. The input fan churns the oil, and the churning oil in turn twirls the output fan. Such a coupling allows some speed difference between its input and output shafts.

flywheel
A heavy disc attached to an engine's crankshaft to increase its rotary inertia, thereby smoothing its power flow.

Four Valves Per Cylinder
A valvetrain with a total of four valves in the combustion chamber, typically two intakes and two exhausts. Compared to the more common two-valve-per-cylinder designs, a four-valve layout offers improved breathing and allows the spark plug to be located closer to center of the combustion chamber.

Four-Wheel Drift
A somewhat imprecise term that describes a cornering situation in which all four tires are operating at large slip angles.

Four-Wheel Steering
A steering system that actively steers the rear wheels as well as the fronts to improve handling and maneuverability.

Fuel Injection
Any system that meters fuel to an engine by measuring its needs and then regulating the fuel flow, by electronic or mechanical means, through a pump and injectors. Throttle-body injection locates the injector(s) centrally in the throttle-body housing, while port injection allocates at least one injector for each cylinder near its intake port.



G

g
The unit of measure for lateral acceleration, or "road-holding." One g is equivalent to 32.2 feet per second per second, the rate at which any object accelerates when dropped at sea level. If a car were cornering at 1.0 g: a figure that very few production cars are able to approach: the driver's body would be pushing equally hard against the side of the seat as against the bottom of it.

Gearset
A group of two or more gears used to transmit power.

Greenhouse
The portion of a car's body that rises above the beltline of the car.

Ground Effect
The phenomenon that occurs when the airflow between a moving object and the ground creates downforce.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 24, 2004, 11:34:14 PM

H

Half-Shaft
An articulating, rotating shaft used in independent-suspension systems to transmit power from a differential to a wheel.

Handling
A general term covering all the aspects of a car's behavior that are related to its directional control.

Heel-and-Toe
A performance-oriented technique of down-shifting while braking that requires the driver to use all three pedals of a manual-transmission car simultaneously. To perform a heel-and-toe downshift, the driver brakes with the toe of his right foot and: while continuing to brake: uses the heel or the side of the same foot to blip the throttle and raise engine rpm as he downshifts. The left foot operates the clutch pedal in the normal fashion. The sequence is as follows: brake with the right toe; depress the clutch with the left foot; shift to neutral; while continuing to brake, blip the throttle with the side or the heel of the right foot to raise rpm; shift to a lower gear; let the clutch out; release the brakes. The technique is difficult to master, but after practice it can be performed in less than a second. This process is best for smooth power flow and long transmission life.

Heim Joint
An extremely rigid articulating joint, commonly known as a ""spherical rod-end,"" used in any precision linkage. Heim joints are often used in the suspension links of race cars because they locate wheels very precisely.

Helical Gear
A type of gear in which the teeth are cut at a slanting angle to the gear's circumference. A helical design produces an even, constant tooth loading in a gearset, thereby reducing noise.

Hemi
A term used to describe any engine that has hemispherical combustion chambers in its cylinder head. Although a four-valve design is more efficient, a hemi head provides room for a pair of large valves and offers good breathing characteristics.

Horsepower
The common unit of measurement of an engine's power. One horsepower equals 550 foot-pounds per second, the power needed to lift 550 pounds one foot off the ground in one second: or one pound 550 feet up in the same time.

Hotchkiss Suspension
A live-axle rear suspension in which leaf springs handle both the axle's springing and its location.

Hydraulic Lifter
A valve lifter that, using simple valving and the engine's oil pressure, can adjust its length slightly: thereby maintaining zero clearance in the valvetrain. Hydraulic lifters reduce valvetrain noise and are maintenance-free.



I

Independent Suspension
Any suspension in which the camber of a wheel is not directly affected by the vertical motion of the opposite wheel.

Intake Charge
The mixture of fuel and air that flows into the engine.

Intake Manifold
The network of passages that direct air or air-fuel mixture from the throttle body to the intake ports in the cylinder head. The flow typically proceeds from the throttle body into a chamber called the plenum, which in turn feeds individual tubes, called runners, leading to each intake port. Engine breathing is enhanced if the intake manifold is configured to optimize the pressure pulses in the intake system.

Intake Port
The passageway in a cylinder head leading from the intake manifold to the intake valve(s).

intercooler
A heat exchanger that cools the air (or, in some installations, the intake charge) that has been heated by compression in any type of supercharger. An intercooler resembles a radiator; it houses large passages for the intake flow, and uses either outside air or water directed over it to lower the temperature of the intake flow inside.


J


Jounce


The motion of a wheel that compresses its suspension.



Jounce Bumper


an elastic cushion used to stiffen the suspension gradually as it approaches the end of its jounce travel.


K


Kickdown


A downshift in an automatic transmission caused by depressing the throttle.



Knock Sensor


A sensor mounted on the engine that is designed to detect the high-frequency vibrations caused by detonation. By employing a knock sensor, a computerized engine-control system allows an engine to operate very near its detonation limit: thereby

improving power and efficiency.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 24, 2004, 11:35:21 PM
L


Lateral Link


A suspension link that is aligned to resist sideways motions in a wheel.



Leading Link


A suspension link that is aligned to resist longitudinal motions in a wheel; it is mounted to the chassis behind the wheel.



Leaf Spring


A long, flat, thin, flexible piece of spring steel or various composite materials that deflects by bending when forces act upon it. Leaf springs are used primarily in suspensions.



lift


A vertical force directed upward, produced by the airflow around a moving object: such as a car body.



Lift-Throttle Oversteer


A handling characteristic that causes the rear tires to lose some of their

cornering grip when the throttle is released during hard cornering.



Limited-Slip Differential
A differential fitted with a mechanism that limits

the speed and torque differences between its two outputs. Limited slip

ensures that some torque is always distributed to both wheels, even when one

is on very slippery pavement.



Line


The path through a corner that best accommodates a late braking point, a high cornering speed, and the fastest-possible exit speed out of a corner.



Link


A suspension member that has a single joint at each end.



Live Axle


A rigid axle incorporating a differential and axle shafts to power the two wheels it is supporting.



Lockup


The juncture at which a tire starts to skid during braking. A tire's maximum braking force is developed when it is on the verge of lockup, so a car's shortest stopping distances are produced when its front and rear tires approach lockup simultaneously. This is very hard to achieve under varying conditions of load and traction, so one end typically locks up before the other. Front-wheel lockup is inherently more stable than rear-wheel lockup.



Lockup Differential


A differential whose two outputs can be locked

together, eliminating any differential action but maximizing traction under

slippery conditions.



Lockup Torque Converter


A torque converter fitted with a lock-up clutch

that can be engaged to eliminate the slip between the torque converter's

input and output, thereby improving fuel efficiency and performance.



Loose


A slang term for oversteer.

>>Back to top



M


Main Bearings


The bearings in an engine block that support the crankshaft.



mid-engine


A chassis layout that positions the engine behind the passenger compartment but ahead of the rear axle.



monocoque


A type of body structure that derives its strength and rigidity from the use of thin, carefully shaped and joined panels, rather than from a framework of thick members. Also called "unit" or unitized construction.



Multileaf Spring


A leaf spring with several leaves bundled together by steel bands.



Multilink Suspension


A rear suspension consisting of at least four links, or "arms," and no struts. Because multilink suspensions assign specific wheel-locating duties to each element, they provide great

flexibility for optimizing both ride and handling.



N


Neutral Steer


A cornering condition in which the front and rear slip angles are roughly the same. Although seemingly an ideal state of balance, perfect neutral steer is not as stable as slight understeer.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 25, 2004, 12:12:23 AM
O


On-Center feel


The responsiveness and feel of the steering when the wheel is approximately centered. In a car with good on-center feel, the steering wheel tends to return to center when slightly deflected, assisting straight-line stability.



Opposite Lock


A technique in which the steering wheel is turned in the direction away from where the car is turning. Opposite lock is used to control a car when it is oversteering and its tail is swinging wide.



Overdrive


Any gearset in which the output shaft turns faster than the input shaft. Overdrive gears are used in most modern transmissions because they reduce engine rpm and improve fuel economy. Occasionally, a separate gearbox with an overdrive gearset is coupled to a conventional transmission.



Overhead Cam


The type of valvetrain arrangement in which the engine's camshaft(s) is in its cylinder head(s). When the camshaft(s) is placed close to the valves, the valvetrain components can be stiffer and lighter, allowing the valves to open and close more rapidly and the engine to run at higher rpm. In a single-overhead-cam (SOHC) layout, one camshaft actuates all of the valves in a cylinder head. In a double-overhead-camshaft (DOHC) layout, one camshaft actuates the intake valves, and one camshaft operates the exhaust valves.



Oversquare


A description of an engine whose bore is larger than its stroke.



Oversteer


A handling condition in which the slip angles of the rear tires are greater than the slip angles of the front tires. An oversteering car is sometimes said to be "loose," because its tail tends to swing wide.

>>Back to top



P


Panhard rod
A long lateral link that provides lateral location of a rigid axle. It usually sits roughly parallel to the axle, with one end attached to the body and the other attached to theaxle.

Pent-roof
A combustion chamber whose upper surface resembles a shallow peaked roof. Usually used with four valves per cylinder.

Pitch
The rotation of a car about a horizontal axis, which causes its nose or tail to bob up and down. Dive and squat are pitching motions.

Planetary gears
A gearset in which all of the gears are in one plane, grouped around each other like the planets around the sun. The central gear is called the ""sun gear."" In mesh with it is a circular grouping of gears, called ""planet gears,"" mounted on a rotating carrier. The planet gears also engage teeth on the inner periphery of the ""ring gear."" By holding any one of the three gear elements motionless, different ratios can be produced between the other two. Planetary gearsets are common in automatic transmissions.

Plenum chamber
A chamber, located between the throttle body and the runners of an intake manifold, used to distribute the intake charge evenly and to enhance engine breathing.

Polar moment of inertia
The resistance of an object to rotational acceleration. When the mass of an object is distributed far from its axis of rotation, the object is said to have a high polar moment of inertia. When the mass distribution is close to the axis of rotation, it has a low polar moment of inertia. A mid-engined car has most of its mass within its wheelbase, contributing to a low polar moment of inertia, which, in turn, improves cornering turn-in.

Port fuel injection
A type of fuel injection with at least one injector mounted in the intake port(s) of each cylinder. Usually the injector is mounted on the air intake manifold close to the port. Port fuel injection improves fuel distribution and allows greater flexibility in intake-manifold design, which can contribute to improved engine breathing.

Pound-feet
The unit of measurement for torque. One pound-foot is equal to the twisting force produced when a one-pound force is applied to the end of a one-foot-long lever.

Power
The rate at which work is performed. Power is proportional to torque and rpm and is measured in horsepower.

Power band
The subjectively defined rpm range over which an engine delivers a substantial fraction of its peak power. The power band usually extends from slightly below the engine's torque peak to slightly above its power peak.

Powertrain
An engine and transmission combination.

Profile
The aspect ratio of a tire.

Progressive-rate spring
A spring with an increasing spring constant. For example, if the first inch of spring motion requires 100 pounds of force, the second inch would require more than an additional 100 pounds, and the third inch would require still more. Progressive-rate springs become stiffer as they are compressed, unlike single-rate springs, which have a fixed spring rate.

Psi
Pounds per square inch, the common unit of measurement for pressure. Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.7 psi.

Push
A slang term for understeer.

Pushrod
A general term for any rod that transfers force in compression. In a valvetrain, pushrods are used to transfer reciprocating motion from the cam followers to a more distant part of a valvetrain, typically the rocker arms.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 25, 2004, 12:15:29 AM
R

Rack-and-pinion
A steering mechanism that consists of a gear in mesh with a toothed bar, called a ""rack."" The ends of the rack are linked to the steered wheels with tie rods. When the gear is rotated by the steering shaft, it moves the rack from side to side: turning the wheels.

Rebound
The motion of a wheel that extends the suspension. The opposite of jounce.

Recirculating-ball
A steering mechanism in which the steering shaft turns a worm gear that, in turn, causes a toothed metal block to move back and forth. Ball bearings in a recirculating track reduce friction between the worm gear and the block. As the block moves, its teeth rotate a gear connected to a steering arm, which then moves the steering linkage.

Redline
The maximum recommended revolutions per minute for an engine. In cars equipped with a tachometer: an instrument that measures engine rpm: the redline is usually indicated by, surprisingly enough, a red line. Some tachometers mark the redline with a colored sector. Others have two lines: the lower one marking the maximum allowable sustained engine rpm, the higher line indicating the absolute maximum rpm.

Ride height
A measurement between the ground and some fixed reference point on a car's body (the reference point varies according to the whims of the particular automaker). This dimension can be used to measure the amount of suspension deflection or the height of the body from the ground.

Ride steer
A generally undesirable condition in which a wheel steers slightly as its suspension compresses or extends. Also called "bump steer."

Rigid axle
A simple non-independent suspension, consisting of a rigid transverse member with wheel hubs solidly bolted to it. The axle can be attached to the body by leaf springs, or by a combination of suspension arms and links.

Ring-and-pinion gear
Any gearset consisting of a small gear (the pinion gear) which turns a large-diameter annular gear (the ring gear).

Roadholding
The ability of a car to grip the pavement. Technically described as "lateral acceleration," because cornering is actually a continuous deviation from a straight path. Measured in gs.

Road-load horsepower
The amount of power at the driving wheels needed to move a car down the road at a steady speed. This power varies according to the car's speed, aerodynamic drag, and mechanical friction, as well as the tires' rolling resistance. Road-load horsepower is distinct from engine power because the output of the engine is sapped by various mechanical losses between the engine's output at its flywheel and the driving wheels.

Roll
The rotation of a car's body about a longitudinal axis. Also less accurately called "sway" or "lean," it occurs in corners because the car's center of gravity is almost always higher than the axis about which it rotates.

Rubber-isolated crossmember
A laterally aligned structural member that is attached to the body or the frame via vibration-absorbing rubber isolators. By bolting suspension or driveline components to such crossmembers, automotive engineers can reduce the transmission of noise and/or ride harshness to the body.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 25, 2004, 12:16:25 AM
R

Rack-and-pinion
A steering mechanism that consists of a gear in mesh with a toothed bar, called a ""rack."" The ends of the rack are linked to the steered wheels with tie rods. When the gear is rotated by the steering shaft, it moves the rack from side to side: turning the wheels.

Rebound
The motion of a wheel that extends the suspension. The opposite of jounce.

Recirculating-ball
A steering mechanism in which the steering shaft turns a worm gear that, in turn, causes a toothed metal block to move back and forth. Ball bearings in a recirculating track reduce friction between the worm gear and the block. As the block moves, its teeth rotate a gear connected to a steering arm, which then moves the steering linkage.

Redline
The maximum recommended revolutions per minute for an engine. In cars equipped with a tachometer: an instrument that measures engine rpm: the redline is usually indicated by, surprisingly enough, a red line. Some tachometers mark the redline with a colored sector. Others have two lines: the lower one marking the maximum allowable sustained engine rpm, the higher line indicating the absolute maximum rpm.

Ride height
A measurement between the ground and some fixed reference point on a car's body (the reference point varies according to the whims of the particular automaker). This dimension can be used to measure the amount of suspension deflection or the height of the body from the ground.

Ride steer
A generally undesirable condition in which a wheel steers slightly as its suspension compresses or extends. Also called "bump steer."

Rigid axle
A simple non-independent suspension, consisting of a rigid transverse member with wheel hubs solidly bolted to it. The axle can be attached to the body by leaf springs, or by a combination of suspension arms and links.

Ring-and-pinion gear
Any gearset consisting of a small gear (the pinion gear) which turns a large-diameter annular gear (the ring gear).

Roadholding
The ability of a car to grip the pavement. Technically described as "lateral acceleration," because cornering is actually a continuous deviation from a straight path. Measured in gs.

Road-load horsepower
The amount of power at the driving wheels needed to move a car down the road at a steady speed. This power varies according to the car's speed, aerodynamic drag, and mechanical friction, as well as the tires' rolling resistance. Road-load horsepower is distinct from engine power because the output of the engine is sapped by various mechanical losses between the engine's output at its flywheel and the driving wheels.

Roll
The rotation of a car's body about a longitudinal axis. Also less accurately called "sway" or "lean," it occurs in corners because the car's center of gravity is almost always higher than the axis about which it rotates.

Rubber-isolated crossmember
A laterally aligned structural member that is attached to the body or the frame via vibration-absorbing rubber isolators. By bolting suspension or driveline components to such crossmembers, automotive engineers can reduce the transmission of noise and/or ride harshness to the body.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 25, 2004, 12:19:43 AM
S

SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers
The professional association of transportation-industry engineers. The SAE sets most auto-industry standard for the testing, measuring, and designing of automobiles and their components.

Scrub radius
The distance from the point where the steering axis intersects the ground to the longitudinal line that runs through the center of the tire's contact patch. Also called "steering offset."

Sedan
As used by Car and Driver, the term "sedan" refers to a fixed-roof car with at least four doors or any fixed-roof two-door car with at least 33 cubic feet of rear interior volume, according to measurements based on SAE standard J1100.

Semi-elliptic leaf spring
A slightly curved leaf spring that is attached to a car's body at its ends and to a suspension component near its middle. One of the two body attachments is a shackle, which allows for changes in the spring's length as it flexes up and down.

Semi-trailing-arm suspension
An independent rear-suspension system in which each wheel hub is located only by a large, roughly triangular arm that pivots at two points. Viewed from the top, the line formed by the two pivots is somewhere between parallel and perpendicular to the car's longitudinal axis.

Series (tire)
The numerical representation of a tire's aspect ratio. A 50-series tire has an aspect ratio of 0.50.

Shift gate
The mechanism in a transmission linkage that controls the motion of the gearshift lever. The shift gate is usually an internal mechanism; however, in some transmissions: including Ferrari five-speeds and Mercedes-Benz automatics : the shift gate is an exposed guide around the shift lever.

Shock absorber
A device that converts motion into heat, usually by forcing oil through small internal passages in a tubular housing. Used primarily to dampen suspension oscillations, shock absorbers respond to motion; their effects, therefore, are most obvious in transient maneuvers.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 25, 2004, 12:20:52 AM
Single-rate spring
A spring with a constant spring rate. For example, if a 100-pound force deflects the spring by one inch, an additional 100 pounds will deflect it one more inch, and so on until the spring either bottoms or fails.

Skidpad
A large area of smooth, flat pavement used for various handling tests. Roadholding is measured by defining a large-diameter circle (Car and Driver uses 300 feet) on the skidpad and measuring the fastest speed at which the car can negotiate the circle without sliding off.

Slip angle
The angular difference between the direction in which a tire is rolling and the plane of its wheel. Slip angle is caused by deflections in the tire's sidewall and tread during cornering. A linear relationship between slip angles and cornering forces indicates an easily controllable tire.

Slushbox
A slang for an automatic transmission.

SOHC
Single overhead camshaft: an SOHC engine uses one camshaft in each cylinder head to operate both the exhaust valves and the intake valves.

Space frame
A particular kind of tube frame that consists exclusively of relatively short, small-diameter tubes. The tubes are welded together in a configuration that loads them primarily in tension and compression.

Spoiler
An aerodynamic device that changes the direction of airflow in order to reduce lift or aerodynamic drag and/or improve engine cooling.

Squat
The opposite of dive, squat is the dipping of a car's rear end that occurs during hard acceleration. Squat is caused by a load transfer from the front to the rear suspension.

Steering axis
The line that intersects the upper and lower steering pivots on a steered wheel. On a car with a strut suspension, the steering axis is defined by the line through the strut mount on top and the ball joint on the bottom.

Steering feel
The general relationship between forces at the steering wheel and handling. Ideally, the steering effort should increase smoothly as the wheel is rotated away from center. In addition, the steering effort should build as the cornering forces at the steered wheels increase. Finally, the friction built into the steering mechanism should be small in comparison with the handling-related steering forces.

Steering gain
The relationship between yaw and the steering wheel's position and effort. All three should be proportional and should build up smoothly.

Steering geometry
The group of design variables outside the steering mechanism that affect steering behavior, including camber, caster, linkage arrangement, ride steer, scrub radius, toe-in, and trail.

Steering response
A subjective term that combines steering feel and steering gain.

Straight-line tracking
The ability of a car to resist road irregularities and run in a straight line without steering corrections.

Stroke
The distance between the extremes of a piston's travel in a cylinder.

Strut
A suspension element in which a reinforced shock absorber is used as one of the wheel's locating members, typically by solidly bolting the wheel hub to the bottom end of the strut.

Sump
The space in the engine block under the crankshaft into which the oil drains from its various applications.

Supercharger
An air compressor used to force more air into an engine than it can inhale on its own. The term is frequently applied only to mechanically driven compressors, but it actually encompasses all varieties of compressors-including turbochargers.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 25, 2004, 12:22:23 AM
T

Targa
A removable-roof body style popularized by Porsche that is similar to a convertible except that it incorporates a fixed, roll-bar-like structure running from side to side behind the front seats.

Throttle-body
A housing containing a valve to regulate the airflow through the intake manifold. The throttle-body is usually located between the air cleaner and the intake plenum.

Throttle-body fuel injection
A form of fuel injection in which the injectors are located at the engine's throttle-body, thereby feeding fuel to more than one cylinder. Such an arrangement saves money by using fewer injectors; but because it routes both fuel and air through the intake manifold, it eliminates some of the tuning possibilities offered by port fuel injection.

Toe-control link
A lateral link in a multilink suspension designed to control a wheel's direction as the suspension moves up and down.

Toe-in
The intentional nonparallel orientation of opposite wheels. Toe-in is measured by subtracting the distance between the front edges of a pair of tires from the distance between the rear edges of the same pair of tires. The toe-in dimension is positive when the fronts of the tires are turned toward the center of the car.

Toe steer
The changes in the direction of a wheel that occur without driver steering input. Toe steer can be caused by ride steer or by deflections in suspension components caused by the stresses of cornering, accelerating, and/or braking on smooth and bumpy roads.

Torque
The rotational equivalent of force, measured in pound-feet.

Torque converter
A particular kind of fluid coupling with a third element added to the usual input and output turbines. Called ""the stator,"" this additional element redirects the churning fluid against the output turbine, increasing torque. This torque increase, however, is achieved at the expense of rpm and efficiency.

Torque steer
A tendency for a car to turn in a particular direction when power is applied. Torque steer is common in front-drive cars because reaction forces created in the half-shafts can generate uneven steering forces in the front tires.

Torsion bar
A spring consisting of a long solid or tubular rod with one end fixed to the chassis and the other twisted by a lever connected to the suspension.

Traction control
An electronic control system that prevents wheelspin by detecting when a driven wheel is about to break traction, and then reducing engine power and/or applying the appropriate brakes to prevent it.

Trail-braking
A driving technique in which the driver begins to brake before entering a turn and then continues to brake as he eases into the corner. As cornering forces build, the driver gradually feathers off the brakes: trading braking power for cornering grip. By increasing the vertical loading : and thus the traction: at the front tires, trail-braking can improve a car's turn-in.

Trailing arm
A suspension element consisting of a longitudinal member that pivots from the body at its forward end and has a wheel hub rigidly attached to its trailing end. A sufficiently rigid trailing arm can provide all of a wheel's location. In that case it is similar to a semi-trailing arm, except that its pivot axis is exactly perpendicular to the car's longitudinal center line.

Trailing link
A suspension link that is aligned to resist longitudinal motions in a wheel; it is mounted to the chassis ahead of the wheel.

Transaxle
A transmission and a differential combined in one integrated assembly.

Transmission
A gearbox with a number of selectable ratios, used to match the engine's rpm and torque to differing vehicle requirements.

Tread squirm
The flexibility in the tire tread between the surface of the tread and the tire carcass. Snow tires, with their small, deep, unsupported tread blocks, have a large amount of tread squirm. Slick racing tires, which have no tread pattern, have very little squirm.

Tube frame
A car frame made up of rigid tubing welded together. Tube frames are easier to manufacture in small quantities than unitized frames.

Tumblehome
The term that describes the convex curvature on the side of a car body.

Tuned intake and exhaust systems
Intake and exhaust systems that, by harnessing the pressure pulses and resonances inside the various passages and chambers of the intake and exhaust manifolds, increase the flow of intake charge into and out of the combustion chambers.

Turbocharger
A supercharger powered by an exhaust-driven turbine. Turbochargers always use centrifugal-flow compressors, which operate efficiently at the high rotational speeds produced by the exhaust turbine.

Turbo lag
Within a turbocharger's operating range, lag is the delay between the instant a car's accelerator is depressed and the time the turbocharged engine develops a large fraction of the power available at that point in the engine's power curve.

Turn-in
The moment of transition between driving straight ahead and cornering.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 25, 2004, 12:25:15 AM
U

Understeer
A handling condition in which the slip angle of the front tires is greater than the slip angle of the rears. An understeering car is sometimes said to push, because it resists turning and tends to go straight.

Unitized construction
A type of body construction that doesn't require a separate frame to provide structural strength or support for the car's mechanical components. A unitized body can employ monocoque construction, or it can utilize strong structural elements as an integral part of its construction.

Universal joint
A joint that transmits rotary motion between two shafts that aren't in a straight line. Depending on its design, a universal joint can accommodate a large angular variation between its inputs and outputs. The simplest kind of universal joint, called a "Hooke joint," causes the output shaft to speed up and slow down twice for every revolution of the input shaft. This speed fluctuation increases with the angular difference between the shafts.



V

Valve float
A high-rpm engine condition in which the valve lifters lose contact with the cam lobes because the valve springs are not strong enough to overcome the momentum of the various valvetrain components. The onset of valve float prevents higher-rpm operation. Extended periods of valve float will damage the valvetrain.

Valve lifter
Also called a "valve follower": the cylindrically shaped component that presses against the lobe of a camshaft and moves up and down as the cam lobe rotates. Most valve lifters have an oil-lubricated hardened face that slides on the cam lobe. So-called "roller lifters," however, have a small roller in contact with the cam lobe: thereby reducing the friction between the cam lobe and the lifter.

Valvetrain
The collection of parts that make the valves operate. The valvetrain includes the camshaft(s) and all related drive components, the various parts that convert the camshaft's rotary motion into reciprocating motion at the valves, and the valves and their associated parts.

Viscous coupling
A particular kind of fluid coupling in which the input and output shafts mate with thin, alternately spaced discs in a cylindrical chamber. The chamber is filled with a viscous fluid that tends to cling to the discs, thereby resisting speed differences between the two shafts. Viscous couplings are used to limit the speed difference between the two outputs of a differential, or between the two axles of a car.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on February 25, 2004, 12:27:48 AM
W

Waste gate
A valve used to limit the boost developed in a turbocharger. A waste gate operates by allowing some of the engine's exhaust flow to bypass the turbocharger's turbine section under certain conditions.

Wheel hop
An undesirable suspension characteristic in which a wheel (or several) moves up and down so violently that it actually leaves the ground. Wheel hop can be caused by many problems, including excessive unsprung weight, insufficient shock damping, or poor torsional axle control.



Y

Yaw
The rotation about a vertical axis that passes through the car's center of gravity.




Z

Zero-offset steering
A steering system whose geometry has a scrub radius of zero. This configuration minimizes the steering effects produced during acceleration (with front drive) or braking on varying traction surfaces.



sana marami kayo matutunan... ako sobrang dami... kahit wala akong alam talaga... ehehhehe

:D :D :D ;D ;D ;D
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Ernest on February 29, 2004, 02:21:36 AM
Quote from: sonic1 on February 24, 2004, 10:53:00 PM
Anti-Dive
A tuned-in front suspension characteristic that converts braking-induced forces in the suspension links into a vertical force that tends to lift the body, thereby reducing dive under braking.

Nice write-up but I have to disagree here.  BMW uses brake torque from the rear to reduce dive by use of cleverly designed rear suspension angles.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: JTE on May 12, 2004, 03:39:07 PM
err...
1ps=0.7355 kw
1HP=1.014PS
1kgm=9.80655Nm
;D
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Dukie on July 23, 2004, 06:13:17 PM
very informative...... kulang nalang ata sizes ng gulong at rims baka pwede kayong mag post nun......
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Lester on September 09, 2004, 10:20:09 PM
Hi newbie here

really sorry to butt in but im just curious what a servo is and where is it located?

thanks
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: deejay on September 26, 2004, 11:16:19 PM
it is located at the throttle body of the efi, this are one of the major problems mitsubishi has specially in lancer or cyclone engine. we had this problem then, nagbabago yung menot, taas baba sya, in honda naman cya yng map sensor  
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Ernest on September 26, 2004, 11:22:27 PM
Quote from: Lester on September 09, 2004, 10:20:09 PM
Hi newbie here

really sorry to butt in but im just curious what a servo is and where is it located?

thanks

According to Webster:

Noun 1. servo - control system that converts a small mechanical motion into one requiring much greater power; may include a negative feedback system
Synonyms: servomechanism, servosystem

Adj. 1. servo - of or involving servomechanisms
Synonyms: servomechanical
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: squalastic on October 25, 2004, 12:44:58 AM
Just a guess for the meaning of some Hondas. ;D

ESi - Extra Special injection
VTi - Variable Timing injection
VTi-S - VTi Special
VTi-L - VTi Luxury
SiR - Super injected Racing

Now for Mercedes. :D

A - Affordable
C - Compact
E - Executive
S - Superior

SL - Spyder Luxury
SLK - SL Kompressed
CL - Coupe Luxury
CLK - CL Kompressed

ML - Mountaineer Luxury

CLS - Compact Lowered Sedan ???
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: BlueVic_8354 on October 26, 2004, 03:13:19 AM
Quote from: squalastic on October 25, 2004, 12:44:58 AM
Just a guess for the meaning of some Hondas. ;D

ESi - Extra Special injection
VTi - Variable Timing injection
VTi-S - VTi Special
VTi-L - VTi Luxury
SiR - Super injected Racing

I read this glossary of terms sa super street:

B16B - JDM DOHC VTEC Motor of CTR
B17A - USDM DOHC VTEC Motor of 92 Integra GS-R
B18A/B - USDM NON-DOHC VTEC Motor of 90's integra RS/LS
B18C1 - US/JDM DOHC VTEC Motor of 94's integra gs-r
CTR - Civic Type R
Integ/Teg - Integra
C/R - Compression Ratio
ECU - Electronic Control Unit
Frankenstein/Mini-Me - LS/VTEC Motor
GS-R - DOHC VTEC Motor on Integs
H22A - US/JDM DOHC VTEC Motor on Prelude
Hybrid - vehicle with motor swap
ITR - Integra Type R
LS - non-VTEC Motor
RS - base model of non-VTEC Integ
SiR - Sports Injected Race
VTEC - Honda's Variable Valve Timing and lift Electronics Control
ZC - JDM SOHC and DOHC Motor found on early Civics and Integs
*****
ESi - Electronic Sports Injected (Ito sabi ng nka-chat ko sa Yahoo na taga-U.K.)
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: emw_E34B25 on November 24, 2004, 11:20:32 AM
Some BMW technicals:

ValveTronic : Variable valve timing and lift. This is infinitely variable as it is actuated by electronic motor controlled by ECU. Used to adjust power output from low to medium throttle. Not used in WOT!.

Servotronic: Electronically controlled hydraulic power steering. Typical PS is purely hydraulically driven. BMW uses eletric motors to control the steering feel based on a series of parameters. Available since 1987!.

Fly-By-Wire eletrionic throttle. Electrically actuated throttle butterflies that repond to electrical impluse as opposed to traditional cable actuated throttle. New E60 M5 can go from idle throttle position to WOT in 120 ms. Yes. Milliseconds!.

Active Steering: Electrically/Electronically operated steering system with variable ratios that respond to different programmed conditions. Controlled by eletric motors with direct mechanical gears , sensors and ECU.

X-Drive: Infinitely variable torque split 4 wheel drive. Front/Back, left and right with Computer control. Detect wheelspin within 150 ms!.

M Cars: Motorsport steet legal BMW performance cars using standard body shells with custom suspension, drive trains, engine, brakes and wheels. M3, M5, M6 are examples. Still factory build at designated plants.

DSC: Dynamic stability control. An advance version of Traction control using a multitute of sensors.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Manga on July 16, 2005, 11:47:59 PM
Newbie here!!! :D
I saw some tire querries. maybe it will help you to check this thread:

http://www.tirerack.com/tires/tiretech/techpage.jsp?techid=33

Let's speak tire side marks:
205/55/VR15 0r 205/55R15 84V
205=tire width
55=tire height
VR=Speed rating
15=Rim size
84V(or without V)=Load Index

Speed ratings:
M 81 mph 130 km/h  
N 87 mph 140km/h Temporary Spare Tires
P 93 mph 150 km/h  
Q 99 mph 160 km/h Studless & Studdable Winter Tires
R 106 mph 170 km/h H.D. Light Truck Tires
S 112 mph 180 km/h Family Sedans & Vans
T 118 mph 190 km/h Family Sedans & Vans
U 124 mph 200 km/h  
H 130 mph 210 km/h Sport Sedans & Coupes
V 149 mph 240 km/h Sport Sedans, Coupes & Sports Cars
W 168 mph 270 km/h Exotic Sports Cars
Y 186 mph 300 km/h Exotic Sports Cars
  285/35ZR19 99Y 186 mph, 300 km/h
  285/35ZR19 (99Y) in excess of 186 mph, 300 km/h

Load Index/Pounds/Kilograms
71 761 345                                      
72 783 355                                       92 1389 630
73 805 365                                       93 1433 650
74 827 375                                       94 1477 670
75 853 387                                       95 1521 690
76 882 400                                       96 1565 710
77 908 412                                       97 1609 730
78 937 425                                       98 1653 750
79 963 437                                       99 1709 775
80 992 450                                     100 1764 800
81 1019 462                                   101 1819 825
82 1047 475                                   102 1874 850
83 1074 487                                   103 1929 875
84 1102 500                                   104 1984 900
85 1135 515                                   105 2039 925
86 1168 530                                   106 2094 950
87 1201 545                                   107 2149 975
88 1235 560                                   108 2205 1000
89 1279 580                                   109 2271 1030
90 1323 600                                   110 2337 1060
91 1356 615

Another very important marking is the UTQG(Uniformity Tire Quality Grade) Standards:
Treadwear - This shows how long your tire will last and how sticky it can be. (0-500 or more)
Traction
Traction Grades  Asphalt g force  Concrete g force
      AA                  Above 0.54               0.41
        A                  Above 0.47               0.35
        B                  Above 0.38               0.26
        C               Less Than 0.38            0.26

Temperature Grades       Speedsi n mph
             A                            Over 115
             B                     Between 100 to 115
             C                     Between 85 to 100

Hope this will help you purchasing tires.
Happy riding! 8)





Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: badboysupra on August 18, 2005, 03:51:37 PM
ETO, TOYOTA NAMAN!! (here are some Toyota engines that I'm very familiar with. specialty ko ang mga 4AGE, 3SGTE, 5MGE, 6MGE, 7MGE, 7MGTE, & 2JZGTE.
4 cylinder engines: popular engines to fix-up.
2TC -  SOHC 1.6L
2TG -  DOHC 1.6L  
3TC -  SOHC 1.8L
3TG -  DOHC 1.8L
3TGTE - DOHC 1.8L w/ Turbo
18RG - DOHC 2.0L
20R - SOHC 2.2L
22RE - SOHC 2.4L
4AGE - DOHC 1.6L
4AFE - DOHC 1.8L
7AGE - DOHC 1.8L
4AGZE - DOHC 1.6L w/ Supercharger
3SGE - DOHC 2.0L
3SGTE - DOHC 2.0L w/ Turbo
5SFE - DOHC 2.0L
1ZZFE - DOHC 1.8L vvti
2ZZFE - DOHC 1.8L vvtli
2RZFE - DOHC 2.4L

6 cylinder engines: popular engines to fix up.
5MGE - DOHC 2.8L
6MGE - DOHC 3.0L
7MGE - DOHC 3.0L
7MGTE - DOHC 3.0L w/ turbo
1JZGE - DOHC 2.5L
1JZGTE - DOHC 2.5L w/ turbo
2JZGE - DOHC 3.0L
2JZGTE - DOHC 3.0L w/ turbo

KBR unlimited LLC - Vallejo, California USA.
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: JpT on September 26, 2005, 10:06:54 AM
question. wat does LMAO mean? hindi ko mafigure out e
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: ConanĀ® on September 26, 2005, 10:13:01 AM
Quote from: JpT on September 26, 2005, 10:06:54 AM
question. wat does LMAO mean? hindi ko mafigure out e

Laughing my ass off. ;D
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: JpT on September 26, 2005, 11:20:25 AM
Quote from: Conan on September 26, 2005, 10:13:01 AM
Laughing my ass off. ;D

damn.. haha thanks conan. and nice ride btw :D
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: FlyLO on August 14, 2006, 12:49:00 AM
ZC - 1600 cc carburated DOHC
D12 - 1200 cc stock of EG Hatch
D15 - 1500 cc stock of Lx
D15B - 1500 cc Vtec 20 lobes
D16Z - 1600 cc Vtec stock of vti
B16A - 1600 cc Vtec DOHC stock of JDM EF SirII/EG6/EG9
B16B - 1600 cc Vtec DOHC stock of JDM EK9 (Civic Type R)
B18B - 1800 cc DOHC stock of USDM Integra GSR
B18C5 - 1800 cc Vtec DOHC stock of Integra Type R
B18B - 1800cc DOHC non-VTEC(USDM Integra LS)
B18C - 1800cc DOHC VTEC(USDM/JDM Integra GSR)
F20 - SOHC 2.0
F22B - DOHC 2.2 non-VTEC
H22 - DOHC 2.2 VTEC
H23 - H23 - DOHC 2.3 non-VTEC

K20A - JDM Integra DC5R
K20A2 - USDM RSX Type S
K20A2 - EUDM/JDM Civic Type R
K20A3 - CR-V/USDM RSX Base
K20A3 - 02/03 civic SI, base 02/03 RSX
K20A2 - 02/03 RSX-s
K20A - 02 CTR
K24 - element, TSX, accord

From the HondaClub.com.ph website. But there are more engines that aren't listed here
such as the NSX engine and s2000 engines
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: FlyLO on August 14, 2006, 01:54:44 AM
Quote from: hansonchua on August 14, 2006, 12:55:37 AM

thanks man! hlped me a lot.... btw, what do you call those gears that make the shifting of the gears shorter???


Gearing or just the shift throw? If its the latter its called a short throw shifter, you only change the shifter and not the gears in the tranny. As the name implies shortens the shifting distance.
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: speedyfix on August 14, 2006, 09:37:13 PM
changing the gearing is better. pero loaded ka if you want to do it coz it's not cheap. hehe!
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: wendell on August 24, 2006, 06:23:47 PM
This is a worthwhile read from Nicolaus Otto. Definitely for the old and new alike!

http://patimg1.uspto.gov/.piw?docid=US000194047&PageNum=5&IDKey=D48AEC069F27&HomeUrl=http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1%2526Sect2=HITOFF%2526d=PALL%2526p=1%2526u=%25252Fnetahtml%25252FPTO%25252Fsrchnum.htm%2526r=1%2526f=G%2526l=50%2526s1=0194047.PN.%2526OS=PN/0194047%2526RS=PN/0194047
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: EG6-R on August 26, 2006, 07:51:21 PM
Quote from: single on August 16, 2006, 12:55:17 AM
well.... im not really having any financial problems ngayon kaya ok lang.hehehe i just wanna know where to find it, how it looks like, and how much it's gonna cost me.... kasi i used to race... pero i never really changed anything like this.... ive driven my friends' cars... pero dein ko trip yung ganitong mga short shifts... any advantages to convince me???

For someone who says hes gone through all kinds of racing and motorsports for so many years now, you're quite dumb when it comes to cars.
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Operator on August 28, 2006, 12:11:16 PM
Quote from: EG6-R on August 26, 2006, 07:51:21 PM
For someone who says hes gone through all kinds of racing and motorsports for so many years now, you're quite dumb when it comes to cars.

Wahahaha! This one cracked me up! But how come I couldn't see the original post? Did the great hansonchua delete his own post? :D
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: WorldRallyBlue on December 04, 2006, 11:01:18 AM
Quote from: EG6-R on August 26, 2006, 07:51:21 PM
For someone who says hes gone through all kinds of racing and motorsports for so many years now, you're quite dumb when it comes to cars.

hahaha pahiya nanaman yang si single, pansin ko parati sablay yan ah!
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: DjiNN-ViRii on March 02, 2007, 05:09:16 PM
mga kuya anu po yung code po ng pang toyota corolla 95. di ko po kasi alam eh. ang alam ko lang po halos pang honda like ek and eg type...T_T
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: tofujay on April 22, 2007, 09:31:12 PM
Quote from: DjiNN-ViRii on March 02, 2007, 05:09:16 PM
mga kuya anu po yung code po ng pang toyota corolla 95. di ko po kasi alam eh. ang alam ko lang po halos pang honda like ek and eg type...T_T

ae101 po sir
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: MOTUL on May 25, 2007, 07:01:59 PM
Synthetic Lubricant - Lubricating Fluid made by chemically reacting materials of a specific chemical composition to produce a compound with planned and predictable properties.
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: partsRus on October 31, 2008, 02:01:08 PM

2drs= 2 doors
4drs= 4 doors
95 oct= 95 octane




e eto mga sir enlighten me pls:
SQL
SPL
EGR
bhp
whp

Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: sonic1 on December 17, 2008, 02:29:57 AM
Hi guys... It's been a while since I last viewed the threads here. It feels good to know that a lot of people are learning from the thread I started. Thanks to all the contributors as well. I am learning a lot as well...

More Hps guys! :thumbsup:
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: maraton0 on December 31, 2008, 12:21:12 PM
i just registered. this is cool! i really wanted to learn things about performance enhancing hope everybody here can help me learn cheers! and happy new year to all.
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: jkfjkf on February 19, 2009, 09:01:58 PM
what's the code of civic fd's stock engine?



btw, this thread is very informative!
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: javejackpot on April 11, 2009, 12:11:35 PM
i think its r18 for the 1.8 variant and its k20a1 for the 2.0 variant. Im not really sure though hahah

Very useful thread for any car enthusiast
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: OGrey on June 04, 2009, 06:47:59 PM
Quote from: javejackpot on April 11, 2009, 12:11:35 PM
i think its r18 for the 1.8 variant and its k20a1 for the 2.0 variant. Im not really sure though hahah

Very useful thread for any car enthusiast

Yep, the engine codes are correct.  Just went through the entire thread and it's a gold mine of information.
Hat's off to the folks who took the time to contribute  :wav:
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Territory TX on June 05, 2009, 01:10:45 PM
Quote from: jkfjkf on February 19, 2009, 09:01:58 PM
what's the code of civic fd's stock engine?

i assume fd = four door civic?

Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: blur on September 11, 2009, 08:03:14 PM
Quote from: Territory TX on June 05, 2009, 01:10:45 PM
i assume fd = four door civic?



really? know i know why FD
Title: Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: Viper999 on October 06, 2009, 03:00:35 AM
Quote from: johnqpublic318 on January 27, 2004, 03:12:18 PM
How can "boost = turbo" when boost can be had also with a supercharger.  Boost is a measurement of pressure provided by forced induction and doesn't just mean "turbo".
to add lang turbo is from the word turbine which is a spiral type rotating at high revolution hence producing either suction and positive pressure appliction.
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: wabut on January 25, 2011, 10:33:56 AM
NL = LP compressor rotor speed
NH = HP compressor rotor speed
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: STuned on April 20, 2011, 10:42:24 PM
I like it how one user self-defined the different variants of Mercedes-Benz! They make sense actually.

Anyway, my share.

I've noticed that Toyota's coding system isn't really complicated as compared to other automobile manufacturers. They basically place the engine code before the chassis code, and of course a number, probably to refer to the vehicle type, size or whatnot.

For example, Toyota's Crown has different engine types. The one with the 1G-FE engine has a code of GS130, with G referring to the engine, and S probably to the automobile name itself. Now, the one with the 2JZ-GE engine has a code of JZS130, this time with JZ referring to the engine. Same applies to their Land Cruiser, and obviously to their other vehicles :occasion14:
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: JLme on December 13, 2011, 09:03:27 AM
Quote from: sonic1 on December 17, 2008, 02:29:57 AM
Hi guys... It's been a while since I last viewed the threads here. It feels good to know that a lot of people are learning from the thread I started. Thanks to all the contributors as well. I am learning a lot as well...

More Hps guys! :thumbsup:

Im learning a lot too! Thanks!
Title: Re: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
Post by: tamaraw5kfx on April 15, 2018, 11:27:48 PM
Im a Newbie here and I learn a lot in this thread. Thankyou Gearheads!