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Author Topic: for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)  (Read 51687 times)

Offline oh_arnold

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #15 on: February 11, 2004, 11:48:03 PM »
VTEC - Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control
VVTi - Variable Valve Timing with intelligence
i-VTEC - honda added the i, as in the "intelligence" in toyota's    VVT-i. that means i-VTEC now also has continuously variable intake valve timing.
VVTL-i - toyota added an L to VVT-i, as in "lift" variation like VTEC, on both intake and exhaust valves.

i-VTEC is already available in the philippine market inside the accords, crvs and some civics. the VVTL-i is not.

Offline Cyclone_CB2A

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #16 on: February 18, 2004, 08:14:18 PM »
How about engine codes for all of the cars that you may possibly know of?

Offline fatbastard

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #17 on: February 18, 2004, 10:56:11 PM »
MITSU:
4G13= 1300cc S/DOHC carb/EFI
4G15= 1500cc S/DOHC carb/EFI
4G18= 1600cc SOHC
4G32= 1600cc SOHC
4G33= 1800cc SOHC
4G37= 1400cc SOHC
4G61= 1600cc DOHC, NA/FI
4G63= 2000cc S/DOHC, NA/FI
4G64= 2400cc SOHC, available in MIVEC
4G67= 1800cc DOHC
4G91= 1500cc DOHC
4G92= 1600cc S/DOHC, available in MIVEC, MIVEC-MD
4G93= 1800cc S/DOHC, NA/FI
4G94= 2000cc SOHC
6A10= 1600cc V6, DOHC
6A12= 2000cc V6, DOHC NA/FI twin turbo, MIVEC
6A13= 2500cc V6, SOHC NA/FI twin turbo
6G72= 3000cc V6, DOHC NA/FI twin turbo

 ;)
« Last Edit: February 18, 2004, 10:57:14 PM by fatbastard »
i want my Aristocrat chicken BBQ c/o weiman5!! hehehe Ü

Offline H8t_SiR

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #18 on: February 19, 2004, 11:58:31 AM »
Toyota:

T= turbocharge
Z= supercharge
G= twincam
F= economical
E= injected
C= carburated
I= single point injected
R= air injection
S= swirl intake ports,direct injection & swirl pot pistons
U = emission package (Japan)
C = emission package (California)

la na ko maisip na iba.... i think eto lang yung mga nagagamit d2 sa pinas
« Last Edit: February 19, 2004, 12:00:03 PM by H8t_SiR »

Offline sonic1

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #19 on: February 24, 2004, 10:32:06 PM »
for Hondas:

EF,EG,EK,ES,EP refers to the chassis codes of each generations of civics..

EF-1988-92
EG-93-95
EK-96-2000
ES-present Civic Sedan
EP- new hatch backs ex. EP3-Civic type-r Hatch





above correction
EF 88-91
EG 92-95

INTEGRAS
DA 89-92(?) LS D16A DOHC non vtec GSR B16A1 DOHC VTEC
DB 94-97 B18B1 LS DOHCnon vtec B18C1 GSR DOHC VTEC
DB7 94-97 4door
DC 98-01 (DC2 type R)
DC5 present K20A

CTR civic type R B16B EK4 96-98 EK9 99-00
ITR DC2 integra type R B18C5

Honda S2000 F20C
NSX C32
Accord F22,H22 (V6?)
Prelude H22



 8) 8) 8) ;D ;D ;D
DRIVE FAST DRIVE HARD!!! THE SECONDS REALLY MATTER!!!

Offline sonic1

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #20 on: February 24, 2004, 10:53:00 PM »
A
A-pillar
the roof support on either side of A car's windshield.

Active Suspension
An extremely sophisticated, computer controlled suspension system that uses powered actuators instead of conventional springs and shock absorbers. The actuators position a car's wheels in the best possible manner to deal with road disturbances and handling loads.

Aerodynamic drag
The drag produced by a moving object as it displaces the air in its path. Aerodynamic drag is a force usually measured in pounds; it increases in proportion to the object's frontal area, its drag coefficient, and the square of its speed.

Air Dam
A front spoiler mounted beneath the bumper and shaped to reduce the airflow under the car. Air dams can increase the airflow to radiators, reduce aerodynamic drag, and/or reduce lift.

Anti-Dive
A tuned-in front suspension characteristic that converts braking-induced forces in the suspension links into a vertical force that tends to lift the body, thereby reducing dive under braking.

Anti-Lock-Braking System
A braking system that senses when any of the wheels have locked up, or are about to, and automatically reduces the braking forces to keep the wheels rolling. Commonly called ABS, such a system can control all four wheels or only two.

Anti-Roll Bar
A suspension element (used at the front, the rear, or both ends of a car) that reduces body roll by resisting any unequal vertical motion between the pair of wheels to which it is connected. An anti-roll bar does not affect suspension stiffness when both wheels are deflected equally in the same direction. Often incorrectly called a sway bar.

Anti-Squat
Similar to anti-dive, this suspension characteristic uses acceleration-induced forces in the rear suspension to reduce squat.

Apex
The point(s) or region on the line through a corner that touches the corner's inner radius.

Aspect Ratio
Generally the ratio between two dimensions of an object. In tire terminology it applies to the unloaded sidewall height of the tire divided by its overall width. A lower aspect ratio implies a shorter, wider tire. When used to describe a wing it is the span of the airfoil (the long dimension perpendicular to the airflow) divided by its chord (the dimension parallel to the airflow).

Axle Tramp
A form of wheel hop that occurs on cars with live axles, caused by the axle repeatedly rotating slightly with the wheels and then springing back.

Offline sonic1

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #21 on: February 24, 2004, 10:57:56 PM »
B

B-pillar
The roof support between a car's front door window and rear side window, if there is one.

balance shalt
A shaft designed so that, as it rotates, it vibrates in a way that reduces or cancels some of the vibration produced by an engine. Not essential to an engine's operation, balance shafts are nonetheless becoming increasingly common as a means of engine refinement. Balance-shafted four-cylinder engines use two shafts turning in opposite directions on either side of the engine's crankshaft. A single balance shaft is used when fitted to three-cylinder and V-6 engines.

ball joint
A flexible joint consisting of a ball in a socket, used primarily in front suspensions because it can accommodate a wide range of angular motion.

Beam Axle
A rigid axle supporting the non-driven wheels. Also called a dead axle.

Beltline
The line running around a car's body formed by the bottom edges of its glass panels

Bevel Gears
A gearset employing gears shaped like slices of a cone, which allows the axes of the gears to be nonparallel. Bevel gears are used to transmit motion through an angle.

Boost Pressure
The increase above atmospheric pressure produced inside the intake manifold by any supercharger. It is commonly measured in psi, inches of mercury, or bar.

Brake Bias
The front/rear distribution of a car's braking power. For the shortest stopping distance, brake bias should match the car's traction at each end during hard braking brake modulation: the process of varying pedal pressure to hold a car's brakes on the verge of lockup. Ideally, the brakes will unlock with only a slight reduction in the pressure needed to lock them. Typically, however, a considerable pressure reduction is required.

Brake Torquing
A procedure generally used in performance tests to improve the off-the-line acceleration of a car equipped with an automatic transmission. It is executed by firmly depressing the brake with the left foot, applying the throttle with the car in gear to increase engine rpm, then releasing the brakes. Brake torquing is particularly effective with turbo charged cars because it helps overcome turbo lag.

Breathing (engine)
A term used to describe an engine's ability to fill its cylinders with air-fuel mixture and then discharge the burnt exhaust gases. In general, the more air-fuel mixture an engine burns the more power it produces.

Bushing
A simple suspension bearing that accommodates limited rotary motion, typically made of two coaxial steel tubes bonded to a sleeve of rubber between them. The compliance of the bushing in different directions has a great effect on ride harshness and handling.

Offline sonic1

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #22 on: February 24, 2004, 11:25:40 PM »
C

C-pillar
The roof support between a car's rearmost side window and its rear window. On a vehicle with four side pillars, the rearmost roof support may be called a D-pillar.

Cam Profile
The shape of each lobe on a camshaft. The profile determines the amount, or ""duration,"" of time the valve is open; it also largely determines the valve's maximum opening, or ""lift."" camber: the angle between the plane of a wheel's circumference and a vertical line, measured in degrees and minutes. The tops of a car's wheels tilt inward when the camber is negative, outward when it is positive.

Camshaft
A shaft fitted with several cams, whose lobes push on valve lifters to convert rotary motion into linear motion. The opening and closing of the valves in all piston engines is regulated by one or more camshafts.

Carbon Fiber
Thread-like strands of pure carbon that are extremely strong in tension (that is, when pulled) and are reasonably flexible. Carbon fiber can be bound in a matrix of plastic resin by heat, vacuum, or pressure to form a composite that is strong, light: and very expensive.

Caster
The angle between a vertical line and the car's steering axis when viewed from the side, measured in degrees and minutes.

Catalytic Converter
Often simply called a "catalyst": a stainless-steel canister fitted to a car's exhaust system that contains a thin layer of catalytic material spread over a large area of inert supports. The material used is some combination of platinum, rhodium, and palladium; it induces chemical reactions that convert an engine's exhaust emissions into less harmful products. So-called three-way catalysts are particularly efficient; their operation, however, demands very precise combustion control, which can be produced only by a feedback fuel-air-ratio control system.

Center Differential
A differential used in four-wheel-drive systems to distribute power to the front and rear differentials.

Chassis
A general term that refers to all of the mechanical parts of a car attached to a structural frame. In cars with unitized construction, the chassis comprises everything but the body of the car.

Coil spring
A bar of resilient metal wound into a spiral that may be compressed or extended without permanent deformation. Coil springs have many automotive applications but are particularly important as suspension springs.

combustion chamber
The space within the cylinder when the piston is at the top of its travel. It is formed by the top of the piston and a cavity in the cylinder head. Since most of the air-fuel mixture's combustion takes place in this space, its design and shape can greatly affect the power, fuel efficiency, and emissions of the engine.

compliance
A slight resiliency, or "give," designed into suspension bushings to help absorb bumps. Good compliance allows the wheels to move rearward a bit as they hit bumps but doesn't allow them to move laterally during cornering.

composite
Any material that consists of two or more components, typically one or more of high strength and one an adhesive binder. The most common composite is fiberglass, which consists of thin glass fibers bonded together in a plastic matrix. The structural properties of composites can be altered by controlling the orientation and configuration of the high-strength components.

compression ratio
The ratio between the combined volume of a cylinder and a combustion chamber when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, and the volume when the piston is at the top of its stroke. The higher the compression ratio, the more mechanical energy an engine can squeeze from its air-fuel mixture. Higher compression ratios, however, also make detonation more likely.

connecting rod
The metal rod that connects a piston to a throw on a crankshaft.

constant-velocity joint
A particular kind of universal joint designed so that there is no cyclic fluctuation between the speeds of its input and output shafts.

control arm
A suspension element that has one joint at one end and two joints at the other end, typically the chassis side. Also known as a wishbone or an A-arm.

cornering limit
The maximum speed at which a car can negotiate a given curve.

coupe
A closed car with two side doors and less than 33 cubic feet of rear interior volume, according to measurements based on SAE standard J1100. A two-door car is therefore not necessarily a coupe.

crankshaft
A shaft with one or more cranks, or "throws," that are coupled by connecting rods to the engine's pistons. Together, the crankshaft and the con rods transform the pistons' reciprocating motion into rotary motion.

cylinder
The round, straight-sided cavity in which the pistons move up and down. Typically made of cast iron and formed as a part of the block.

cylinder head
The aluminum or iron casting that houses the combustion chambers, the intake and exhaust ports, and much or all of the valvetrain. The head (or heads, if an engine has more than one bank of cylinders) is always directly above the cylinders.

cylinder liner
The circular housing that the piston moves in when the cylinder is not an integral part of the block. Also known as a "sleeve."

Offline sonic1

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #23 on: February 24, 2004, 11:27:10 PM »
D

DBA
A unit of measure for decibels, the measure of sound intensity or pressure named after Alexander Graham Bell. It is a logarithmic measurement; every 3dB increase represents a doubling of the sound pressure. The ""A"" in dBA indicates that the measurement was taken with an A-weighted scale; sound pressure varies across the audible spectrum, and the A-weighted scale approximates the human ear's sensitivity to various frequencies.

de Dion suspension
A suspension system in which the rear, driven wheels are bolted to a transverse, lightweight, rigid member. Power is delivered to the wheels by universal-jointed half-shafts attached to a body-mounted differential.

dead pedal
A footrest found to the left of the leftmost pedal. It provides a place for the driver to brace his left leg during hard cornering.

detonation
A condition in which, after the spark plug fires, some of the unburned air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber explodes spontaneously, set off only by the heat and pressure of air-fuel mixture that has already been ignited. Detonation, or "knock," greatly increases the mechanical and thermal stresses on the engine.

differential
A special gearbox designed so that the torque fed into it is split and delivered to two outputs that can turn at different speeds. Differentials within axles are designed to split torque evenly; however, when used between the front and rear axles in four-wheel-drive systems (a center differential), they can be designed to apportion torque unevenly.

disc brakes
Properly called caliper disc brakes: a type of brake that consists of a disc that rotates at wheel speed, straddled by a caliper that can squeeze the surfaces of the disc near its periphery. Disc brakes provide a more linear response and operate more efficiently at high temperatures and wet conditions than drum brakes.

dive
The dipping of a car's nose that occurs when the brakes are applied. Dive is caused by a load transfer from the rear to the front suspension; this transfer occurs because the car's center of gravity, through which all inertial forces pass, is higher than its contact patches, the points where the braking forces are exerted on the ground.

DOHC
Double Overhead Camshaft: a DOHC engine has two camshafts in each cylinder head; one camshaft operates the intake valves, the other actuates the exhaust valves.

downforce
A vertical force directed downward, produced by airflow around an object: such as a car body.

drag coefficient
A dimensionless measure of the aerodynamic sleekness of an object. A sleek car has a drag coefficient, or "Cd," of about 0.30; a square, flat plate's is 1.98. Also signified by Cx.

drivability
The general qualitative evaluation of a powertrain's operating qualities, including idle smoothness, cold and hot starting, throttle response, power delivery, and tolerance for altitude changes.

driveline
Everything in the drivetrain, less the engine and the transmission.

driveshaft
The shaft that transmits power from the transmission to the differential.

drivetrain
All of a car's components that create power and transmit it to the wheels; i.e. the engine, the transmission, the differential(s), the hubs, and any interconnecting shafts.

drum brakes
A type of brake that has an iron casting shaped like a shallow drum that rotates with the wheel. Curved brake shoes are forced into contact with the inner periphery of this drum to provide braking.


Offline sonic1

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #24 on: February 24, 2004, 11:28:44 PM »

E

EGR: exhaust-gas recirculation
A method of reducing NOx (oxides of nitrogen) exhaust emissions by recirculating some of the engine's exhaust gas into the intake manifold. The exhaust gas serves as inert filler that absorbs heat during the combustion process and reduces the peak temperature reached during combustion.

engine-control system
A computerized brain that regulates an engine's operation by monitoring certain engine characteristics (rpm, coolant temperature, intake airflow, etc.) through a network of sensors and then controlling key variables (fuel metering, spark timing, EGR, etc.) according to pre-programmed schedules.

EPA fuel economy
Laboratory fuel-economy tests administered by the Environmental Protection Agency using simulated weight and drag to re-create real driving conditions. The city fuel-economy test, also used to test emissions compliance, is based on a drive through typical Los Angeles urban traffic of about twenty years ago. Of course, such nostalgic conditions are purely nostalgic these days. The highway test uses a higher, steadier speed, averaging 49.4 mph.

Exhaust Manifold
The network of passages that gathers the exhaust gases from the various exhaust ports and routes them toward the catalysts and mufflers of the exhaust system. A manifold with free-flowing passages of a carefully designed configuration, called a ""header,"" can improve breathing.

Exhaust Port
The passageway in the cylinder head leading from the exhaust valves to the exhaust manifold.


F

Feedback Fuel-Air-Ratio Control
A feature of a computer-controlled fuel system. By using a sensor to measure the oxygen content of the engine's exhaust, the system keeps the fuel-air ratio very close to the proportion for chemically perfect combustion. Such tight control of the fuel-air ratio is mandatory for the proper operation of three-way catalysts.

Fiberglass
A composite material that relies on small glass fibers for its strength.

Final-Drive Ratio
The reduction ratio, found in the gearset of a drivetrain, that is furthest removed from the engine. Typically, the differential ratio.

Floorpan
The largest and most important stamped metal part in a car's body. Usually assembled from several smaller stampings, the floorpan forms the floor and fixes the dimensions for most of the car's external and structural panels. It is also the foundation for many of the car's mechanical parts.

Fluid Coupling
Any device that transfers power through a fluid between its inputs and outputs. A fluid coupling basically consists of two fans in a sealed, oil-filled housing. The input fan churns the oil, and the churning oil in turn twirls the output fan. Such a coupling allows some speed difference between its input and output shafts.

flywheel
A heavy disc attached to an engine's crankshaft to increase its rotary inertia, thereby smoothing its power flow.

Four Valves Per Cylinder
A valvetrain with a total of four valves in the combustion chamber, typically two intakes and two exhausts. Compared to the more common two-valve-per-cylinder designs, a four-valve layout offers improved breathing and allows the spark plug to be located closer to center of the combustion chamber.

Four-Wheel Drift
A somewhat imprecise term that describes a cornering situation in which all four tires are operating at large slip angles.

Four-Wheel Steering
A steering system that actively steers the rear wheels as well as the fronts to improve handling and maneuverability.

Fuel Injection
Any system that meters fuel to an engine by measuring its needs and then regulating the fuel flow, by electronic or mechanical means, through a pump and injectors. Throttle-body injection locates the injector(s) centrally in the throttle-body housing, while port injection allocates at least one injector for each cylinder near its intake port.



G

g
The unit of measure for lateral acceleration, or "road-holding." One g is equivalent to 32.2 feet per second per second, the rate at which any object accelerates when dropped at sea level. If a car were cornering at 1.0 g: a figure that very few production cars are able to approach: the driver's body would be pushing equally hard against the side of the seat as against the bottom of it.

Gearset
A group of two or more gears used to transmit power.

Greenhouse
The portion of a car's body that rises above the beltline of the car.

Ground Effect
The phenomenon that occurs when the airflow between a moving object and the ground creates downforce.

Offline sonic1

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #25 on: February 24, 2004, 11:34:14 PM »

H

Half-Shaft
An articulating, rotating shaft used in independent-suspension systems to transmit power from a differential to a wheel.

Handling
A general term covering all the aspects of a car's behavior that are related to its directional control.

Heel-and-Toe
A performance-oriented technique of down-shifting while braking that requires the driver to use all three pedals of a manual-transmission car simultaneously. To perform a heel-and-toe downshift, the driver brakes with the toe of his right foot and: while continuing to brake: uses the heel or the side of the same foot to blip the throttle and raise engine rpm as he downshifts. The left foot operates the clutch pedal in the normal fashion. The sequence is as follows: brake with the right toe; depress the clutch with the left foot; shift to neutral; while continuing to brake, blip the throttle with the side or the heel of the right foot to raise rpm; shift to a lower gear; let the clutch out; release the brakes. The technique is difficult to master, but after practice it can be performed in less than a second. This process is best for smooth power flow and long transmission life.

Heim Joint
An extremely rigid articulating joint, commonly known as a ""spherical rod-end,"" used in any precision linkage. Heim joints are often used in the suspension links of race cars because they locate wheels very precisely.

Helical Gear
A type of gear in which the teeth are cut at a slanting angle to the gear's circumference. A helical design produces an even, constant tooth loading in a gearset, thereby reducing noise.

Hemi
A term used to describe any engine that has hemispherical combustion chambers in its cylinder head. Although a four-valve design is more efficient, a hemi head provides room for a pair of large valves and offers good breathing characteristics.

Horsepower
The common unit of measurement of an engine's power. One horsepower equals 550 foot-pounds per second, the power needed to lift 550 pounds one foot off the ground in one second: or one pound 550 feet up in the same time.

Hotchkiss Suspension
A live-axle rear suspension in which leaf springs handle both the axle's springing and its location.

Hydraulic Lifter
A valve lifter that, using simple valving and the engine's oil pressure, can adjust its length slightly: thereby maintaining zero clearance in the valvetrain. Hydraulic lifters reduce valvetrain noise and are maintenance-free.



I

Independent Suspension
Any suspension in which the camber of a wheel is not directly affected by the vertical motion of the opposite wheel.

Intake Charge
The mixture of fuel and air that flows into the engine.

Intake Manifold
The network of passages that direct air or air-fuel mixture from the throttle body to the intake ports in the cylinder head. The flow typically proceeds from the throttle body into a chamber called the plenum, which in turn feeds individual tubes, called runners, leading to each intake port. Engine breathing is enhanced if the intake manifold is configured to optimize the pressure pulses in the intake system.

Intake Port
The passageway in a cylinder head leading from the intake manifold to the intake valve(s).

intercooler
A heat exchanger that cools the air (or, in some installations, the intake charge) that has been heated by compression in any type of supercharger. An intercooler resembles a radiator; it houses large passages for the intake flow, and uses either outside air or water directed over it to lower the temperature of the intake flow inside.


J


Jounce


The motion of a wheel that compresses its suspension.



Jounce Bumper


an elastic cushion used to stiffen the suspension gradually as it approaches the end of its jounce travel.


K


Kickdown


A downshift in an automatic transmission caused by depressing the throttle.



Knock Sensor


A sensor mounted on the engine that is designed to detect the high-frequency vibrations caused by detonation. By employing a knock sensor, a computerized engine-control system allows an engine to operate very near its detonation limit: thereby

improving power and efficiency.

Offline sonic1

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #26 on: February 24, 2004, 11:35:21 PM »
L


Lateral Link


A suspension link that is aligned to resist sideways motions in a wheel.



Leading Link


A suspension link that is aligned to resist longitudinal motions in a wheel; it is mounted to the chassis behind the wheel.



Leaf Spring


A long, flat, thin, flexible piece of spring steel or various composite materials that deflects by bending when forces act upon it. Leaf springs are used primarily in suspensions.



lift


A vertical force directed upward, produced by the airflow around a moving object: such as a car body.



Lift-Throttle Oversteer


A handling characteristic that causes the rear tires to lose some of their

cornering grip when the throttle is released during hard cornering.



Limited-Slip Differential
A differential fitted with a mechanism that limits

the speed and torque differences between its two outputs. Limited slip

ensures that some torque is always distributed to both wheels, even when one

is on very slippery pavement.



Line


The path through a corner that best accommodates a late braking point, a high cornering speed, and the fastest-possible exit speed out of a corner.



Link


A suspension member that has a single joint at each end.



Live Axle


A rigid axle incorporating a differential and axle shafts to power the two wheels it is supporting.



Lockup


The juncture at which a tire starts to skid during braking. A tire's maximum braking force is developed when it is on the verge of lockup, so a car's shortest stopping distances are produced when its front and rear tires approach lockup simultaneously. This is very hard to achieve under varying conditions of load and traction, so one end typically locks up before the other. Front-wheel lockup is inherently more stable than rear-wheel lockup.



Lockup Differential


A differential whose two outputs can be locked

together, eliminating any differential action but maximizing traction under

slippery conditions.



Lockup Torque Converter


A torque converter fitted with a lock-up clutch

that can be engaged to eliminate the slip between the torque converter's

input and output, thereby improving fuel efficiency and performance.



Loose


A slang term for oversteer.

>>Back to top



M


Main Bearings


The bearings in an engine block that support the crankshaft.



mid-engine


A chassis layout that positions the engine behind the passenger compartment but ahead of the rear axle.



monocoque


A type of body structure that derives its strength and rigidity from the use of thin, carefully shaped and joined panels, rather than from a framework of thick members. Also called "unit" or unitized construction.



Multileaf Spring


A leaf spring with several leaves bundled together by steel bands.



Multilink Suspension


A rear suspension consisting of at least four links, or "arms," and no struts. Because multilink suspensions assign specific wheel-locating duties to each element, they provide great

flexibility for optimizing both ride and handling.



N


Neutral Steer


A cornering condition in which the front and rear slip angles are roughly the same. Although seemingly an ideal state of balance, perfect neutral steer is not as stable as slight understeer.

Offline sonic1

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #27 on: February 25, 2004, 12:12:23 AM »
O


On-Center feel


The responsiveness and feel of the steering when the wheel is approximately centered. In a car with good on-center feel, the steering wheel tends to return to center when slightly deflected, assisting straight-line stability.



Opposite Lock


A technique in which the steering wheel is turned in the direction away from where the car is turning. Opposite lock is used to control a car when it is oversteering and its tail is swinging wide.



Overdrive


Any gearset in which the output shaft turns faster than the input shaft. Overdrive gears are used in most modern transmissions because they reduce engine rpm and improve fuel economy. Occasionally, a separate gearbox with an overdrive gearset is coupled to a conventional transmission.



Overhead Cam


The type of valvetrain arrangement in which the engine's camshaft(s) is in its cylinder head(s). When the camshaft(s) is placed close to the valves, the valvetrain components can be stiffer and lighter, allowing the valves to open and close more rapidly and the engine to run at higher rpm. In a single-overhead-cam (SOHC) layout, one camshaft actuates all of the valves in a cylinder head. In a double-overhead-camshaft (DOHC) layout, one camshaft actuates the intake valves, and one camshaft operates the exhaust valves.



Oversquare


A description of an engine whose bore is larger than its stroke.



Oversteer


A handling condition in which the slip angles of the rear tires are greater than the slip angles of the front tires. An oversteering car is sometimes said to be "loose," because its tail tends to swing wide.

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P


Panhard rod
A long lateral link that provides lateral location of a rigid axle. It usually sits roughly parallel to the axle, with one end attached to the body and the other attached to theaxle.

Pent-roof
A combustion chamber whose upper surface resembles a shallow peaked roof. Usually used with four valves per cylinder.

Pitch
The rotation of a car about a horizontal axis, which causes its nose or tail to bob up and down. Dive and squat are pitching motions.

Planetary gears
A gearset in which all of the gears are in one plane, grouped around each other like the planets around the sun. The central gear is called the ""sun gear."" In mesh with it is a circular grouping of gears, called ""planet gears,"" mounted on a rotating carrier. The planet gears also engage teeth on the inner periphery of the ""ring gear."" By holding any one of the three gear elements motionless, different ratios can be produced between the other two. Planetary gearsets are common in automatic transmissions.

Plenum chamber
A chamber, located between the throttle body and the runners of an intake manifold, used to distribute the intake charge evenly and to enhance engine breathing.

Polar moment of inertia
The resistance of an object to rotational acceleration. When the mass of an object is distributed far from its axis of rotation, the object is said to have a high polar moment of inertia. When the mass distribution is close to the axis of rotation, it has a low polar moment of inertia. A mid-engined car has most of its mass within its wheelbase, contributing to a low polar moment of inertia, which, in turn, improves cornering turn-in.

Port fuel injection
A type of fuel injection with at least one injector mounted in the intake port(s) of each cylinder. Usually the injector is mounted on the air intake manifold close to the port. Port fuel injection improves fuel distribution and allows greater flexibility in intake-manifold design, which can contribute to improved engine breathing.

Pound-feet
The unit of measurement for torque. One pound-foot is equal to the twisting force produced when a one-pound force is applied to the end of a one-foot-long lever.

Power
The rate at which work is performed. Power is proportional to torque and rpm and is measured in horsepower.

Power band
The subjectively defined rpm range over which an engine delivers a substantial fraction of its peak power. The power band usually extends from slightly below the engine's torque peak to slightly above its power peak.

Powertrain
An engine and transmission combination.

Profile
The aspect ratio of a tire.

Progressive-rate spring
A spring with an increasing spring constant. For example, if the first inch of spring motion requires 100 pounds of force, the second inch would require more than an additional 100 pounds, and the third inch would require still more. Progressive-rate springs become stiffer as they are compressed, unlike single-rate springs, which have a fixed spring rate.

Psi
Pounds per square inch, the common unit of measurement for pressure. Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.7 psi.

Push
A slang term for understeer.

Pushrod
A general term for any rod that transfers force in compression. In a valvetrain, pushrods are used to transfer reciprocating motion from the cam followers to a more distant part of a valvetrain, typically the rocker arms.

Offline sonic1

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #28 on: February 25, 2004, 12:15:29 AM »
R

Rack-and-pinion
A steering mechanism that consists of a gear in mesh with a toothed bar, called a ""rack."" The ends of the rack are linked to the steered wheels with tie rods. When the gear is rotated by the steering shaft, it moves the rack from side to side: turning the wheels.

Rebound
The motion of a wheel that extends the suspension. The opposite of jounce.

Recirculating-ball
A steering mechanism in which the steering shaft turns a worm gear that, in turn, causes a toothed metal block to move back and forth. Ball bearings in a recirculating track reduce friction between the worm gear and the block. As the block moves, its teeth rotate a gear connected to a steering arm, which then moves the steering linkage.

Redline
The maximum recommended revolutions per minute for an engine. In cars equipped with a tachometer: an instrument that measures engine rpm: the redline is usually indicated by, surprisingly enough, a red line. Some tachometers mark the redline with a colored sector. Others have two lines: the lower one marking the maximum allowable sustained engine rpm, the higher line indicating the absolute maximum rpm.

Ride height
A measurement between the ground and some fixed reference point on a car's body (the reference point varies according to the whims of the particular automaker). This dimension can be used to measure the amount of suspension deflection or the height of the body from the ground.

Ride steer
A generally undesirable condition in which a wheel steers slightly as its suspension compresses or extends. Also called "bump steer."

Rigid axle
A simple non-independent suspension, consisting of a rigid transverse member with wheel hubs solidly bolted to it. The axle can be attached to the body by leaf springs, or by a combination of suspension arms and links.

Ring-and-pinion gear
Any gearset consisting of a small gear (the pinion gear) which turns a large-diameter annular gear (the ring gear).

Roadholding
The ability of a car to grip the pavement. Technically described as "lateral acceleration," because cornering is actually a continuous deviation from a straight path. Measured in gs.

Road-load horsepower
The amount of power at the driving wheels needed to move a car down the road at a steady speed. This power varies according to the car's speed, aerodynamic drag, and mechanical friction, as well as the tires' rolling resistance. Road-load horsepower is distinct from engine power because the output of the engine is sapped by various mechanical losses between the engine's output at its flywheel and the driving wheels.

Roll
The rotation of a car's body about a longitudinal axis. Also less accurately called "sway" or "lean," it occurs in corners because the car's center of gravity is almost always higher than the axis about which it rotates.

Rubber-isolated crossmember
A laterally aligned structural member that is attached to the body or the frame via vibration-absorbing rubber isolators. By bolting suspension or driveline components to such crossmembers, automotive engineers can reduce the transmission of noise and/or ride harshness to the body.

Offline sonic1

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Re:for the old n new alike... (technical terminologies)
« Reply #29 on: February 25, 2004, 12:16:25 AM »
R

Rack-and-pinion
A steering mechanism that consists of a gear in mesh with a toothed bar, called a ""rack."" The ends of the rack are linked to the steered wheels with tie rods. When the gear is rotated by the steering shaft, it moves the rack from side to side: turning the wheels.

Rebound
The motion of a wheel that extends the suspension. The opposite of jounce.

Recirculating-ball
A steering mechanism in which the steering shaft turns a worm gear that, in turn, causes a toothed metal block to move back and forth. Ball bearings in a recirculating track reduce friction between the worm gear and the block. As the block moves, its teeth rotate a gear connected to a steering arm, which then moves the steering linkage.

Redline
The maximum recommended revolutions per minute for an engine. In cars equipped with a tachometer: an instrument that measures engine rpm: the redline is usually indicated by, surprisingly enough, a red line. Some tachometers mark the redline with a colored sector. Others have two lines: the lower one marking the maximum allowable sustained engine rpm, the higher line indicating the absolute maximum rpm.

Ride height
A measurement between the ground and some fixed reference point on a car's body (the reference point varies according to the whims of the particular automaker). This dimension can be used to measure the amount of suspension deflection or the height of the body from the ground.

Ride steer
A generally undesirable condition in which a wheel steers slightly as its suspension compresses or extends. Also called "bump steer."

Rigid axle
A simple non-independent suspension, consisting of a rigid transverse member with wheel hubs solidly bolted to it. The axle can be attached to the body by leaf springs, or by a combination of suspension arms and links.

Ring-and-pinion gear
Any gearset consisting of a small gear (the pinion gear) which turns a large-diameter annular gear (the ring gear).

Roadholding
The ability of a car to grip the pavement. Technically described as "lateral acceleration," because cornering is actually a continuous deviation from a straight path. Measured in gs.

Road-load horsepower
The amount of power at the driving wheels needed to move a car down the road at a steady speed. This power varies according to the car's speed, aerodynamic drag, and mechanical friction, as well as the tires' rolling resistance. Road-load horsepower is distinct from engine power because the output of the engine is sapped by various mechanical losses between the engine's output at its flywheel and the driving wheels.

Roll
The rotation of a car's body about a longitudinal axis. Also less accurately called "sway" or "lean," it occurs in corners because the car's center of gravity is almost always higher than the axis about which it rotates.

Rubber-isolated crossmember
A laterally aligned structural member that is attached to the body or the frame via vibration-absorbing rubber isolators. By bolting suspension or driveline components to such crossmembers, automotive engineers can reduce the transmission of noise and/or ride harshness to the body.

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